Regulating terrorist content online: considerations and trade-offs
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iiSeamus Hughes and Alexander Meleagrou-Hitchens, ‘The Threat to the United States from the Islamic State’s Virtual Entrepreneurs’, CTC Sentinel, 10.3 (2017), 1–9.
iiiAlastair Reed and Haroro Ingram, ‘Exploring the Role of Instructional Material in AQAP’s Inspire and ISIS’ Rumiyah’, 1st European Counter Terrorism Centre (ECTC) Conference on Online Terrorist Propaganda, 2017.
ivGraham Macklin, ‘The Christchurch Attacks: Livestream Terror in the Viral Video Age’, CTC Sentinel, 2019, 18–29.
vThe Christchurch Call, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, <https://www.christchurchcall.com/>.
viHM Government, Online Harms White Paper (London: The Stationary Office, 2019) <https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploa....
viiBBC, ‘Germany Starts Enforcing Hate Speech law’, Jan 1st 2018, <https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-42510868>.
viiiAbout, Global Internet Forum To Counter Terrorism, <https://gifct.org/about/>.
ixAbout, Tech Against Terrorism, <https://www.techagainstterrorism.org/about/>.
xJ.M. Berger and Heather Perez, ‘The Islamic State’s Diminishing Returns on Twitter: How Suspensions Are Limiting the Social Networks of English-Speaking ISIS Supporters’, Occasional Paper, 2016, 1–20 <https://cchs.gwu.edu/sites/cchs.gwu.edu/files/downloads/Berger_Occasional Paper.pdf>; Maura Conway, ‘Violent Extremism and Terrorism Online in 2016: The Year in Review’, Vox Pol, 2016; Maura Conway and others, Disrupting Daesh: Measuring Takedown of Online Terrorist Material and Its Impacts (Dublin, 2017); Daniel Grinnell, Stuart Macdonald and David Mair, The Response Of, and on ,Twitter to the Release of Dabiq Issue 15, 2017.
xiMia Bloom, Hicham Tiflati and John Horgan, ‘Navigating ISIS’s Preferred Platform: Telegram’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 2017, 1–13 <https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2017.1339695>; Nico Prucha, ‘IS and the Jihadist Information Highway – Projecting Influence and Religious Identity via Telegram’, Perspectives on Terrorism, 10.6 (2016), 48–58; Bennett Clifford and Helen Powell, ‘Encrypted Extremism: Inside the English-Speaking Islamic State Ecosystem on Telegram’, Program on Extremism, 2019.
xiiJoe Whittaker, ‘How Content Removal Might Help Terrorists’, Lawfare Blog, 2019 <https://www.lawfareblog.com/how-content-removal-might-help-terrorists>.
xiiiMichael Jensen and others, ‘The Use of Social Media by United States Extremists’, National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, 2018 <http://www.start.umd.edu/data->.
xixClifford and Powell.
xvWatkin, A. (2019) Considering the whole ecosystem in regulating terrorist content and hate online. E-International Relations. Accessed 8 October 2019 via https://www.e-ir.info/2019/09/18/considering-the-whole-ecosystem-in-regu...
xviWeirman, S., & Alexander, A. (2018). Hyperlinked Sympathizers: URLs and the Islamic State. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 1-19.
xviiMacdonald, S., Grinnell, D., Kinzel, A., and Lorenzo-Dus, N. (2019) A study of outlinks contained in tweets mentioning ‘Rumiyah’. The Global Research Network on Terrorism and Technology; Conway, M., Khawaja, M., Lakhani, S., Reffin, J., Robertson, A., & Weir, D. (2017). Disrupting Daesh: measuring takedown of online terrorist material and it's impacts; Shehabat, A., & Mitew, T. (2018). Black-boxing the black flag: anonymous sharing platforms and ISIS content distribution tactics. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(1).
xviiiClifford, B., and Powell, H. (2019) Encrypted Extremism: Inside the English-speaking Islamic State ecosystem on Telegram. Program on Extremism, The George Washington University.
xixTech Against Terrorism (2019) ISIS use of smaller platforms and the DWeb to share terrorist content. Tech Against Terrorism. Accessed 30 August 2019 via https://www.techagainstterrorism.org/2019/04/29/analysis-isis-use-of-sma...
xxPotts, N. (2019) UK Home Affairs Committee: Hate crime and its violent consequences. House of Commons. Accessed 30 August 2019 via http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidence... Statista (2019a) Number of Twitter employees from 2008 to 2018. Statista. Accessed 30 August 2019 via https://www.statista.com/statistics/272140/employees-of-twitter/
xxiGesenhues, A. (2019) Facebook ad revenue tops $16.6 billion, driven by Instagram, Stories. Martech Today. Accessed 23 Sept 2019 via https://martechtoday.com/despite-ongoing-criticism-facebook-generates-16...
xxiiBickert, M. (2017) Hard questions: How we counter terrorism. Facebook Newsroom. Accessed 23 Sept 2019 via https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2017/06/how-we-counter-terrorism/
xxiiiHouse of Commons Home Affairs Committee (24 April 2019) Oral evidence: Hate crime and its violent consequences. Accessed 23 Sept 2019 via http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidence...
xxivAbout, Tech Against Terrorism, <https://www.techagainstterrorism.org/about/>.
xxvAbout, Global Internet Forum To Counter Terrorism, <https://gifct.org/about/>.
xxviTech Against Terrorism (2017) Tech Against Terrorism at Chatham House. Tech Against Terrorism. Accessed October 2017 via https://techagainstterrorism.org/2017/07/12/tat-at-chatham-house/; Lee, D. (2018) Tech firms hail ‘progress’ on blocking terror. BBC. Accessed 30 August 2019 via https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-44408463
xxviiFor example, Gab, < https://gab.com/about>